Senators Robert Menendez (D-NJ) and Cory Booker (D-NJ) voted against Dr. Gottlieb’s nomination.
Dr. Gottlieb, 44, has promised to divest himself from several health care companies and recuse himself for one year from decisions involving those businesses.
Dr. Gottlieb was seen as a moderate choice of President Trump’s, compared with other candidates that he was reportedly considering.
He is set to take over a sprawling agency that regulates everything from tobacco to food to drugs and medical devices: Products regulated by the F.D.A. account for 20 cents of every dollar spent by American consumers each year.
Supporters of Dr. Gottlieb’s nomination have said his business experience will serve him well as head of the FDA, and friends and associates have described him as an independent thinker who will not always side with industry.